How to Ace The Substitute Teaching Job Interview and Application Process

Identifying Hiring Requirements for Substitute Teaching Jobs

Educational requirements for substitute teaching jobs vary greatly from state to state. Some states require their subs to have a Bachelor's degree and teaching credential, while others require only a high school diploma or the equivalent. Before beginning the application process, check with the school district or districts in your area for more information. In addition to academic qualifications, other requirements frequently include background checks, fingerprinting, medical exams, application fees, training sessions, and drug testing.

Finding Substitute Teaching Jobs

Your local school district's website is a good place to begin your job search. You can also call the school district and request to speak with the substitute coordinator. Ask him or her if the district is hiring substitute teachers. If so, request an application by mail. Check the government section of your phone book, or conduct an Internet search, to find other school districts in your area.

If a district is not hiring, ask when the district will be accepting applications for substitute teachers and make a note to follow up later. Because school districts often keep applications on file for up to a year, you may want to apply even if there are not immediate openings for subs.

Several years ago, I applied for a substitute teaching position at a school district near my home. A few weeks later, I received a form letter stating plainly that due to the budget crisis in California, the district was not hiring any additional subs, nor did it plan to hire any in the near future. I thought I had heard from this district for the last time, but then a few weeks later, I received a call from the district's personnel department. I was invited to attend an orientation for new substitute teachers, and I even worked briefly for this district before I moved to Arizona!

The bottom line: Apply to as many districts as you can, even if they do not have immediate openings.

Managing The Substitute Teaching Job Interview

If you've applied and meet the basic requirements, you'll probably be called in for an interview. Before you go, do some basic research on the district, its schools and programs, and its student population. Check the district's web site, or ask the secretary to send you some information. If you do not hear from the district office within three to four weeks, call to find out the status of your application.

Even though many teachers dress casually for school, wear professional attire for the interview. Bring copies of any documents requested by the district's personnel department.

In the interview, you may be asked hypothetical questions about how you would handle various classroom situations. These questions may be asked by an individual interviewer, or by a panel of school administrators, teachers, or district personnel staff. Here are a few examples of questions tha you might be asked:

"What would you do if the teacher left no lesson plan, or if you had time to fill?"

Possible Answers: Ask the principal or another teacher if there are other lesson plans available. You could also say that you would bring some activities of your own, or you would have a class discussion on some issue related to the course (or other appropriate topic).

"How would you handle a disrespectful or uncooperative student, or a student that makes inappropriate comments in class?"

Possible Answers: Tell the student to stop immediately, and leave the teacher a note describing the student's behavior. Resist the impulse to engage in a power struggle with the student. If the problem continues, or if it's serious, call the school office or send a reliable student to the office for help.

"What would you do if a fight occurs in the classroom?"

Possible Answers: Demand that the students stop fighting immediately, and call the office or send a reliable student to the office for help. Seek the help of a teacher or campus security guard. Make sure that the other students are safe from harm.

"What would you do if a student has a medical emergency in the classroom, such as a seizure, bleeding, or lapse of consciousness?"

Possible Answers: Call the school office or send a reliable student to the office for help. Make sure that the other students are safe from harm. If necessary, locate the class first aid kit, cover your hands with latex gloves, and take the proper steps to treat the student's injury.

You may also be asked about your work and life experiences. Take the opportunity to talk about your parenting experiences and any work you've done with children in the community. Share any lessons you've learned that have helped you work effectively with children, especially under difficult circumstances.

In the interview, the interviewer (or interviewers) will probably discuss district policies and procedures, federal and state education laws, expectations for substitutes, and other issues. You'll also be given an overview of a typical work day, and you'll have the opportunity to ask questions. Do not hold back – make sure that you've cleared up any issues you do not know or understand.

Above all, be personable and show enthusiasm about children and education. Show that you're a confident person who will treat students with care and respect. You'll then be on your way to your first assignment!

Source by Jason Castellucci

The Best Paying Electrical Engineering Jobs

Electrical engineers are very important in the fields of technology. They include those who are responsible of power supply, distributing power and solving electricity problems. There are also electronic engineers who specialize in inventing, improving and repairing electrical products. Both types of engineers are important especially in the modern world that technology is improving or changing day by day. A new day sees a new invention; these engineers are the ones behind all the technology matters.

With these kinds of responsibilities, it is logic to say that they earn a good sum of salary. Engineering is a marketable career, very complex and worth a good wage. So, which are the best paid engineering job?

Comparing the two fields of electrical engineering, the best paying jobs are those of electronic engineering. This is because of the invention of computers and other electronic products. According to a report released in 2008 by Bureau Labor of Statistics, electrical engineers were earning an average annual salary of $ 85,350 while electronic engineers were making an average annual wage of $ 88,670. This however does not conclude that electronic engineers earn more than electrical engineers. The amount of payment depends on the following factors;

Type of Job

Different electrical jobs earn different salaries. A lead engineer earns more than $ 100,000 annually, while a senior electrical system engineer can earn an average annual salary of $ 80,000. It is therefore important to note that one's salary depends on the type of job and responsibilities assigned.

The state you are working in

Electrical engineering salaries differ from one state to another. The less developed countries pay low salaries compared to the developed states. In most countries, the average salary for electrical engineers ranges from $ 85,000 to $ 95,000.

The leading states offering top electrical engineering salaries are the states of New York, Mississippi, Massachusetts and West Virginia averaging $ 100,000.

Experience

Another factor that determines one's salary is the experience. Salaries will always rise with the increase in the number of years of experience. This explains why most graduates start their career at a low salary rate. The rates however, increase with time.

State and basis of employment

This is another important factor when it comes to the payment of any job. The state of employments depends on whether one is employed permanently or temporally while the basis of employer depends on who the employer is; the government or the private sector.

The most qualified candidates have high chances to land on a permanent job than the less qualified. The qualifications depend on how one performed in the exams and during training. Those employed permanently generally earn more cash than those employed temporally.

On the other hand, if you are employed by a state, that means you are a public servant. Electrical engineers employed by the state earn less compared to those employed in the private sector.

It therefore implies that it is very difficult to clearly define which electrical jobs are paid highly and how much, it all depends on the factors outlined.

Source by James K Mateta

How Electrical Engineering Continues to Change the World

Electrical engineering may seem like a boring profession, especially if the first person that comes to mind is the public utility repairman who fixed the neighborhood power grid. Contrary to popular belief, a degree in electrical engineering leads to career opportunities bigger than that. Behind some of the latest and greatest innovations is a workforce that is well-versed on the subject.

Cellular Telecommunications

A few decades ago, the first publicly available handheld phones were bulky and with bad reception. By the 90's and with thanks to the electrical engineering developments towards GSM technologies, mobile phones soon did more than just make and receive calls. Today, it has become a race to the smallest, most multi-functional mobile phone. Headway in electrical engineering and the subsequent circulation of the science means more companies need creative individuals. And this is just to keep up with the competition. That's not even taking into account the perks of such a world-changing occupation.

Computer Electronics

The boost in the mobile world is owed largely to the impressive breakthroughs in computer technology. These original steps forward are owed to the electrical engineering concepts behind them. Even now, electrical engineering knowhow is necessary in order to come up with devices that get continually more complex as its operation becomes simpler. Before the software developers came up with the applications that make our lives easier, someone made the increasingly sophisticated networks and computers that they are stored in. Whose midnight oil do you think was burned to make the hardware and software giants the successes that they are?

Space Exploration

Rocket science may have been ultimately responsible for putting a man on the moon. Yet it was the resolve and commitment of electrical engineering professionals that made it possible to see three-dimensional renditions of the planet Mars. It is their skills that are put to the test when equipment stop functioning or have new requirements. They continue to challenge the existing limitations by changing how we view them and the world in general. This makes them the best bet towards future journeys outside our solar system.

You may intend to follow in the innovative entrepreneurial milestones of and expert like Thomas Edison. You may idolize the large leaps and bounds in the science made by Nikola Tesla. Either way, electrical engineering has a place for you. All it asks is that you stay passionate, motivated and dedicated to persevere and make those milestones, leaps and bounds.

Source by Johnny Kilroy

How to Prepare Yourself for CFP Exam

Certified Financial Planning is the most recognized, prestigious and internationally accepted degree course. Material for CFP exam is easy to verify on-line. Stay updated via E-services and download latest CFP course and list of best authors for certain subjects. Make the best approach to crack CFP exam as it is a tough nut to track yet hard work and proper knowledge could enable you to grab far better degree of CFP course.

Postgraduate Certificate of Financial Planning is a mystery, but it opens all doors of success and evaluation of their abilities. To request a certificate of CFP course is used in many approved course providers need to take care of some things before taking a responsible course. The list is a consideration in the selection process and raises the benefits associated with the certificate of CFP exam:

The title is written in an accredited university, is an "accredited university", which was approved by the Ministry of Education accreditation accredited explained that the license, see the course schedule online subscriptions check, compare the cost of education, reviving the style of education and a careful analysis and comparison of all databases, select the most appropriate and continue to use the CFP course certification.

Instant credibility and respect of clients, employers and colleagues is available. Provides the same competitive advantage over other financial advisors impressive. A complete analysis of the skills and knowledge of complex financial planning. Belonging to a global network of professional trainers certified financial planner.All are united in a celestial facts certified financial planner to be.

Certified Financial Planner have different functions, including not only basic financial planning for the management of social security benefits, pensions, real estate and tax planning, insurance planning and risk planning. Everything strengthen opportunities for huge growth and big profits

Educate family physicians; you can take your career to great heights. The correct choice is the key to some ideas for assessment for selection and certification of their financial advisers to help education.

The benefits of a certified financial planner depends on many factors such as education, skills, certifications, customers, the stock market and other investment vehicles, experience and desire.

Anyone can sell insurance and annuities, stocks, bonds and mutual funds – but only a global financial planner can add value to their financial security through various tactics.

A better understanding of the origin of the CFP course, you can understand the logic and the importance of proceeding in this way. Enter all necessary information on-line access to different places and with many years of experience available 24/7 for the address.

The designation of Certified Financial Planner certification is important for financial planners, CFP exam is Board of Standards in the United States and recognized worldwide by other financial institutions associated with the planning of customized global business.

Prepare yourself for CFP exam with best developed technological tools to upgrade your knowledge status and acquire internationally known CFP course degree. Grab best possible material and keep in mind above points while preparation and make best efforts.

Source by Sarvesh Kumrawat

You Can Be a Cruise Ship Owner Even If You Are Not Rich

Unlike fractional ownership of aircraft and houseboats, fractional owners of a cruise ship can all use the ship simultaneously. There is plenty of room for you and the other owners to live on the ship any time you want, or all the time. You can use it as a full-time residence, and so can the other co-owners.

The first obvious benefit of shared ownership is acquisition cost. There are many cruise ships on the market in all price ranges, sizes, ages, and conditions. There are many smaller and older cruise ships available for less than one million dollars. At the lower end, some smaller cruise ships in fair condition can be acquired for about $ 250,000. At the highest end, the biggest new mega cruise ships now cost about $ 500 million to build.

Do the math. If one hundred buyers pool resources in exchange for a percentage of ship ownership, the acquisition cost will be divided by that same number. One percent ownership of a $ 250,000 cruise ship would cost a mere $ 2500 for ship acquisition. At the other end of the scale, one percent ownership of a brand new mega cruise ship would cost five million dollars.

There are some other figures that must be tabulated into the total cost of ownership. Acquisition cost is first and foremost. The next figure is the cost to put the ship in service. On an older ship this cost may be higher than the acquisition cost. On the other hand, the cost to put a ship into service can be much lower if you were to get a good deal on a ship that already meets the international standards for ship safety, especially SOLAS (Safety of Life at Sea). Maintaining compliance with Chapter II SOLAS 74 amendments is cost prohibitive for some older ships and they are typically scrapped instead of being refurbished at great expense. There is a very important SOLAS implementation date coming up on January 10, 2010. On that date all commercial international ships will be required to be in compliance with the new fire safety codes. The most important new codes deal with the use of combustible materials in the ship. It will be expensive to replace all combustible materials in ships with non-combustible or flame resistant SOLAS compliant materials that meet the new safety standards. This will result in many ships being sold for scrap metal.

The looming SOLAS 2010 implementation date offers both perils and opportunities. The biggest peril is the possibility that the expense to bring a ship into full compliance with international standards will be greater than the value of the ship. However, there is a silver lining in this cloud. This pending SOLAS implementation date has already started to show up as a primary factor in the asking and selling prices of ships on the market today.

SOLAS 2010 also offers a tremendous opportunity for those who may prefer to have a very large houseboat instead of a commercial ship. Ships that are not in compliance with SOLAS 2010 are now selling for a song (inexpensively). A cruise ship can easily be converted into a megayacht with the stroke of a pen. Privately owned yachts, not in commercial service, and not carrying passengers or cargo for hire are exempt from many of the SOLAS requirements. Operating costs are also lower for a private yacht. It cost less to register, flag, and insure a private yacht. Megayachts can be flagged and classified for unlimited service. That means that a megayacht can go practically anywhere you want it to go. There is one major drawback to registering a cruise ship as a private yacht. You can not use the yacht commercially. This cuts off a potential revenue source.

There are many decent cruise ships for sale at prices of less than one million dollars that would make good private megayachts. For example, take the 'VERGINA SKY' is a ship that I have personally inspected and so I can talk first hand about it. The asking price was $ 750,000. Here are the specifics of the ship in a nutshell:

Current Name: Vergina Sky

Ship Details: Built: 1971 in Japan – totally rebuilt 1992 in Greece

Dimensions: LOA 97.8mx LBP 82m x beam 14.6mx draft 4.49m Dwt: 500 on 4,49 GT / NT: 4,668 / 1,717

Description: Pielstick 2 x 8400bhp, twin screw, bow thruster, 3 x 500kw generators, 16 knots, 2 saloons, restaurant, 3 bars, casino, duty free shop, disco, swimming pool, 120 cabins for 318 guests. Lying Greece

My Comments after inspecting the ship

This is a well built little 'Pocket Cruiser.' At just over 320 'in length overall, it is a small cruise ship. Many experienced cruise passengers prefer smaller more intimate cruise ships for a variety of reasons. This ship can go places where the big cruise ships can not reach, such as shallow draft ports and even many rivers. It has an omni-directional bow thruster and can turn on a dime (relatively speaking of course). I have carefully examined this ship from the engine log to the ultrasound hull report. This is a sound and safe little cruise ship. It is also a very fuel efficient and economical ship. My first time on this ship was in the middle of the summer in Greece when it was very hot outside. The ship is fully air conditioned and it was cool and comfortable inside the ship. I checked the engine room to see how many generators were running. I am happy to report that all the electric and air-conditioning requirements can be met by running just one of the three Daihatsu generators. These generators are very economical to operate in terms of fuel consumption and maintenance.

I was able to negotiate with the owner, John Kosmas and get some concessions. I got the price down to $ 500,000. And at that price, he agreed to bring the ship into compliance with SOLAS 2005 and also to include new paint topside. The ship was fairly well furnished even including bed linen, but the ship had been laid up for years. Its most recent service was in the Mediterranean and Black Seas. Cruise ships that trade exclusively in the Mediterranean and Black Seas tend to have smaller cabins and fewer amenities than the typical cruise ships that frequent the Caribbean. The bottom line is that this ship was an economy model, not a luxury model. When I was inspecting the engine room, I asked for the engine log. When I opened it I noticed all the entries were in Greek. I was able to discern some dates and other data that told me when the ship was last in service, but I could not read the Greek entries so I handed the engine log back to the ship owner, and told him "It's all Greek to me . " Being Greek, Mr. Kosmas failed to find the humor in that.

Let's look at the numbers on this ship. 100% of the acquisition cost would have been $ 500,000. 1% thus = $ 5000. One hundred buyers could own one percent each. There are 120 cabins so each co-owner could have a private cabin with 20 cabins left over. However, these cabins are a bit on the small side. Every cabin does have a bath and shower, but the size is just too small to be comfortable for most people, especially if the owners intend to live onboard full time. On a ship this size I would recommend that there be no more than 60 joint owners so each can have two cabins and will have the option of converting those two cabins into a two room suite. To keep the numbers simple lets say that this ship has 50 buyers who each buy 2% of the ship. Buy in cost per owner would then be $ 10,000. If there were only ten buyers, then the acquisition cost per buyer would be $ 50,000. $ 50,000 will not buy much of a house on land, but on this ship it would buy 10% of a ship like the Vergina Sky and twelve cabins that could be converted into a fairly large home.

At the economy end of the scale, a co owner could buy 1% of an economical cruise ship for about $ 5000. However it is not necessary for all co owners to have equal shares in the ship. Ownership can easily be divided up into 1% increments. If one buyer wanted 5%, then his cost of acquisition would be $ 25,000. He would be entitled to 5% of the ship's cabins, and would have five votes on operations and management of the ship, such as itinerary planning.

Before becoming a joint owner, it would be imperative to find other people who have similar goals. I would suggest composing a preliminary DCCR (DECLARATION OF
COVENANTS, CONDITIONS AND RESTRICTIONS). You can do this before you even shop for a ship. Write your version of how you envision the shared ownership of a cruise ship as it should be. Then see if you can find some people who agree with your goals and your DCCR, subject to some revisions and concessions to accommodate other joint owners.

Step One: Determine if you and your family have the desire and financial capability to become joint cruise ship (or megayacht) owners.

Step Two: Find others who agree with your concept for shared ownership of a ship.

Step Three: Shop for a ship. This is the fun part.

Step Four: Buy a ship.

Step Five: Put the ship into service.

Even if you are not rich, you can afford to jointly own a cruise ship. But then comes the next logical question: Why would you or anyone want to live on a cruise ship? Who would this be suitable for?

If you are retired or otherwise have a stable income from a dependable source you probably can afford to be a cruise ship co-owner and live full-time onboard a cruise ship. If you work in a field where you can work from home online, then you too can probably afford to become a co-owner of a cruise ship. Most modern ships have satellite Internet service available 24-7.

Operating a cruise ship is expensive. The expenses include the cost of fuel, labor, maintenance, repairs, spares, food, port charges, insurance, technical management, shore management, registration, and the other costs of operating the ship. At first glance these costs may seem expensive, but in reality the cost of living at sea is actually a bargain considering what you get based upon what you pay. The best value does not always translate to the cheapest price. If the ship is well managed, the management will seek the highest quality goods, services, and labor at the very best global value. If the owners are dissatisfied with either technical or shore management, they replace them.

If there are many other co-owners of the ship to split the operating expenses of the ship, it can be affordable for those with a moderate level of income, such as a retirement check. I do have specific operating cost figures but I will not bore you with that data. The bottom line is that it would not be prohibitively expensive for a middle-class average person to be able to afford to own a fraction of a cruise ship and be able to afford to live on the cruise ship full-time if they elect to do so.

For comparison purposes it is noteworthy that you have expenses in land based housing too. Those expenses include property taxes, homeowners insurance, maintenance and repairs, yard care, and utilities. Additionally you have transportation costs and of course food costs. Most people also spend money on entertainment too. When these expenses are added up the maintenance fees for living aboard a ship are comparable.

There are actually some savings resulting from living aboard a ship. The ship's executive chef buys food and kitchen supplies in bulk for the ship and can get better prices than the average shopper. Other savings result from the large freezers and the mobility of the ship giving the food service management the ability to stock up on supplies in countries where prices are low. Some crew and owners may choose to fish for leisure. This can supply some fresh food at even lower costs to the owners. Labor savings are realized when the crew is hired based upon the best global labor rates. The laws of supply and demand drive prices down in some places in the world. Proper ship management can capitalize on these disparities. All the savings would be passed on to the cabin owners resulting in an economical cost of living similar to what you could expect to spend with a conventional home. Ship management should have accounting transparency will all books (financial records) open and available for any owner to inspect. Also ship management should submit all financial records quarterly to an outside auditor for the peace of mind of the owners. Anybody in the chain who spends any of the ship's operational funds should also be periodically audited. For example, a good way to audit the executive chef would be for one or more of the live-aboard co-owners of the ship to go to the food market district of each port of call and they should try to haggle and get a better price for the same food than the price the executive chef was able to acquire. If the executive chef can not find better deals than the ship's co-owners, then the executive chef should be given his walking papers. The executive chef position is a vital position on a cruise ship. This is a position of trust because he will bill the food he buys to the ship. He must never be tempted to accept bribes from vendors or suppliers. Therefore, he should know that he will be routinely audited and any substandard performance will result in termination of his employment.

The biggest value of all onboard cruise ship is in labor costs. The better cruise ships tend to be labor intensive, providing passengers with unrelenting attention and extravagant pampering. The hotel staff on all cruise ships provides the basic services including food preparation and serving, laundry, cabin stewarding, entertainment, casino operation, beauty shop operations, This is one area where I would prefer to not scrimp because of the very good value in these services due to the low cost of international labor. I would prefer to go beyond the level that most cruise ships go in the area of ​​spas. Land based luxury and specialty resort spas are very expensive, but the exact same level of service, professionalism, skill, and treatments can be provided on a cruise ship at extremely low cost. Labor is the key and the primary reason for most of the expense of spas. Labor is a tremendous value on a cruise ship because the cruise ship managers can choose workers from the global marketplace where it is easy to get the best value for the money.

Spas

Spa treatment is customized for each client. Spas commonly offer services such as:

Soothing massage therapies, skin and body treatments drawing from European and Eastern principles, expert hair and nail services, and a full menu of therapeutic treatments utilizing a deep-cleansing facial at the start of the program, as well as a series of detoxification and contouring wraps, lypo-reduction wrap, as well as marine mud and herb wraps. Massage Therapies including: Swedish Massage, Shiatsu Massage, Deep Tissue Treatment, Maternity Massage, Therapeutic Foot Massage (Reflexology), French Hydrotherapy Massage.

The healing therapies include a variety of massages, reflexology, facials, firming and many other body treatments. Plus a wide variety of services and wellness programs specially designed to meet the individual's needs and desires. A full service salon offers all manner of hair treatments (including a certified colorist), as well as a variety of manicures, pedicures, and 'facelifts' for your hands. Extensive skin care includes: Age Management Therapies including, Glycolic Facial, Anti-Aging Facial Peel, Microdermabrasion; Facials including: Aromaplasty Facial, Teen Facial, Gentleman's Facial, Nutrisource Facial, Regulating Acne Facial, Vitamin "C" Skin Renewal Facial; Body Treatments including: Decleor Sauna Mask, French Hydrotherapy Massage, Andromeda Salt Glow, Mummy Mud Mask, Seaweed Body Wrap, Safe Sun Treatment, Herbal Wrap; as well as various hair and nail treatments.

Additionally, spas also can facilitate weight reduction programs, and even administer physical therapy. In short, you can be treated like a king, on the budget of a pauper.

Labor Costs – International competition provides the most value to the ship owners.

On paper it seems to make good sense to man the ship with a Philippine crew. I love the Philippines. I have been there several times. English is still widely spoken and usually spoken quite well. The people are usually friendly and happy to see foreign tourists. A large percentage of ships worldwide are manned by crews from the Philippines. The Philippine government has a pretty good structure and system to facilitate the export of Philippine labor. In spite of how attractive it seems on paper, I would recommend NOT hiring a crew from the Philippines. Philippine workers tend to be envious of others, and especially of everybody else's wages. They tend to think they are getting the raw end of the deal. It is rare to find a Filipino who is happy with his employment. While I am sure there are many good employees from the Philippines, there are more who are dissatisfied than satisfied with their employment. There seems to be a cultural anomaly in the Philippines where people feel that employers are bad guys. I would hesitate to recommend a crew from the Philippines in spite of the apparent advantages on paper.

My recommendation (for what it is worth)

I do know something about what I am writing about here. I am the former President of Adventure Spa Cruise. My advice is not just uninformed ranting. Back to the point now, the second best manning nation for a ship is India. I highly recommend India for the medical staff and the entire hotel staff, including the spa, and every other position except the deck and engineering. The labor costs in India are very attractive. I would also recommend using an Indian based manning agency. It is best if the ship's owners do not have to deal with every employee issue or concern. The manning agency takes the pressure off the ship's management, and their service is very reasonable. Indian employees tend to make better employees than do Filipinos. Indians also speak English, albeit not quite as well as Filipinos. I know Americans tend to get all worked up when someone uses a broad brush to paint an entire ethnicity. I love the people from the Philippines, but as employees they tend to be more problematic than do Indian employees. I realize that this statement is politically incorrect, and these days that might get me thrown in jail. I usually do not worry so much about being politically correct. I call it the way I see I and I let the cards fall where they may, and hope I can stay out of jail for speaking my mind.

All deck and engineering positions should be filled with an all Ukrainian crew. The ship will realize the most value for the money with Ukrainian deck and engineering staff. The Ukraine has a long maritime history and tradition. Maritime training and standards in the Ukraine are among the best in the world. Ukrainian deck and engineering staff are as good as or better than any other, but the cost of their labor is a very good value. The labor for deck officer and engineering staff are governed by international agreements, including STCW (Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers).

Putting a cruise ship into service

After acquiring the ship, it will require some more investment to put it into service. At this point the joint owners will need to reach some agreements on many points. The cost of putting a cruise ship into service as a megayacht (very large private yacht) is much less than putting the ship into commercial service. However, if you can afford to buy a ship can easily meet SOLAS 2010 requirements, and can afford to flag and register it as a commercial ship then you can use the ship commercially to produce income and ROI (return on investment).

There are many marketing options for a commercial cruise ship. If the owners use no more than half the cabins, then that will leave sufficient means to produce enough revenue to at least pay for operating costs, and possibly produce a profit above operating costs. I will just briefly touch on some of the options available for marketing cruise ship capacity.

1. Conventional cruises. There is a trade-off here. You can produce revenue by providing conventional cruises. This will require that the ship have an itinerary that suits the commercial cruising market.

2. Freight and cargo. Some cruise ships have enough cargo capacity to produce some revenue by booking freight.

3. Assisted living. A cruise ship is well suited for assisted living, including crew and facilities. The going rate for assisted living in the average city in America is higher than the average cost of a cruise of the same duration.

4. Timeshares. This is an option not available to conventional cruise ship operators but could be facilitated if your co-owners agree to this type of marketing to fill cabins not used by co-owners. I will not go into the figures here, but timeshares tend to be high profit sales. There is a good chance that if the joint owners use no more than half the ship's cabins for their own personal use, the remaining cabins could easily produce more than the total amount all the joint owners combined have invested.

Ships that would easily meet SOLAS 2010 tend to cost a bit more money to buy up front, and cost more to put into service. So I will give you couple of examples.

The Orient Venus is one of my favorite high-end ships. The specs:

M / V ORIENT VENUS

BUILT: JULY 1990 AT IHITOKYO

JAPANESE FLAG

JG. NK OCEAN GOING

GRT: 21,884 TONS

DWT: 4,863 TONS ON 6.50 M

LOA x B x D: 174.0×24.0x8.7 M

M / ENG: DIESEL UNITED-12PC2-6V x 2 SETS,

TWIN SCREW CPP

SPEED: SERVICE ABT21.0 KNOTS / ABT 56.70MT / D

FUEL TANKS CAPA: IFO 1,500.4 M3 / MDO 87.30M3

GENERATOR: 1,600KWxAC450Vx60HZx 3 SETS

ENGINE ROOM M0 SYSTEMS

CRUISING RANGE: ABT 7,000MILE

PASSENGERS: MAX 606 PERSONS

CREW: 120 PERSONS

ABA WOG

DELIVERY: BY ARRANGEMENT

INSPECTION: KOBE.JAPAN

OWNERS PRICE USD 22 MIL net here

My personal assessment of the Orient Venus

It is a late model and beautiful ship. It has many highly desirable attributes for a residential ship. It is a high end luxury cruise ship with an extraordinarily high tonnage to passenger ratio. This is very important for a residential ship. More living room and more space per passenger is far more essential for a residential ship than for a conventional cruise ship. When passengers are only on a ship for a short time, they can tolerate cramped living quarters, but when they live year-round on a ship, the extra space is quite valuable. The owners have been trying to sell this ship for $ 22,000,000. That may seem like a high price, but when you divide it by the number of cabins (195) the asking price per cabin is $ 102,564. This price is in line with what you would expect to pay for a condominium. The last word I got from the owners is that they will sell the ship for $ 18,000,000 now ($ 92,307 per cabin). The cabins are all "outside" cabins and are large. The ship can accommodate 606 passengers and a crew of 120, for a total of 726 people.

Several ship brokers have this ship listed. I usually do not talk to ship brokers. I prefer to talk directly with the ship owners. I am in contact with the owners of the Orient Venus. I could probably get this stunningly beautiful ship for less than $ 15,000,000 today, and get some concessions and extras thrown in to boot.

Another example of a high end ship that would make do well as a commercial cruise ship, plus accommodate a hundred or so full-time live aboard co-owners is the Dream Princess, originally named Song of Norway.

GRT: 22,945

Max Draft: 6.7 M in sea water

Length: 194 M.

Total No. of Cabins: 538

Total No. Of Beds + Berth: 1280

Outside Cabins: 346

Inside Cabins: 192

Cabins size range: SQ. M: 11 -18.

Main Engines: 4 Wartsila Sulzer – 18,000 HP.

Service Speed: 16 Knots.

Public Rooms:

Main Dinning room – "King & I" – about 500 pax.

South Pacific Lounge about 400 pax.

My Fair Lady Lounge about 500 pax.

Bars- 5

Self Service Restaurant on the swimming pool deck

Large Swimming pool

Disco

Casino

Duty Free Shops

Gym

8 passenger decks

extensive outdoor areas

Ship was redecorated / refurbished extensively during 2005.

The asking price on this ship is $ 31 million USD. Divide the asking price by the number of cabins and the average cost per cabin would $ 57,620 be. Of course some cabins are better than others so co-owners would have to agree of the shared usage before agreeing to the purchase.

I have some bad news for the ship owners and some good news for you. This ship will not sell for the asking price.

Fuel

Ship fuel is cheaper than automobile fuel for a few reasons. There are no road taxes on ship fuel of course and also it is different fuel. Ships main engines usually run on IFO180 or IFO380. Generator engines tend to be more finicky and commonly require diesel (MDO), which is still cheaper than automotive diesel. IFO 180 and 380 costs much less than MDO, usually about half the price. Ships consume a lot of fuel. So fuel cost is a major concern. I have some suggestions. If I were a co-owner of a ship I would be willing to invest a little more in the ship to increase fuel efficiency, and thus lower operating costs. There are many things that can be done to increase fuel efficiency. I would start with hull resistance. There is a new silicone-based paint from International Paints that when applied to the hull reduces amount of resistance in the water sufficiently to result in a 3 to 5% decrease in fuel consumption. A similar coating for the propellers also has been proven to increase fuel efficiency.
In addition to hull and prop coatings, there is an even more promising way to achieve dramatic fuel savings.

There is a company called Kiteship that has developed and produces kites for racing sailboats. These sailing kites do not require a mast. The kites fly high above the vessel, attached by cable and controlled from the vessel. Dave Culp of Kiteship has done a technical feasibility study on fitting a very large kite onto a conventional cruise ship. This would dramatically reduce fuel consumption. It would convert a fuel guzzler to a "green machine." This is tantamount to converting a powerboat into a sail boat. The design of a cruise ship limits the amount of sail that a conventional ship can safely accommodate. A cruise ship lacks the ballast of a sail boat. If used in addition to the main engine (s) the kite will increase fuel efficiency. If the kite is used to pull the ship with the main engines shut down the ship's speed will be reduced substantially. However, in this case, not only would the ship save IFO (main engine fuel) but also save MDO (generator engine fuel). If the kite were pulling the ship unassisted by the ship's engines, then the propellers could be used to propel the ship's generators without firing up the diesel generator engines. Even if the ship were traveling very slowly in the water, the propellers would turn in reverse if freed from the main engines. This is a very simple and easy task for the ship's engineer to accomplish. In other words, the ship can be pulled by the kite, and that motion will push the ship's propellers providing power to produce electricity and power the air-conditioning without using any fuel. The trade-off is a loss of speed and also some tacking is required, further reducing actual speed. What's the rush? Why not go for maximum fuel savings? The salient point is that a high flying large kite can pull a cruise ship. If I were a co-owner of a cruise ship I would hope to find like minded co-owners who would be receptive to using such state-of-the-art technologies to save fuel.

There are hundreds of cruise ships on the market but I will just mention one more here. This cruise ship has RO / RO (Roll-On, Roll-Off) capability. This would be very convenient for live aboard owners who want to bring their "toys" with them. The garage deck will accommodate 6 to 8 trucks, or 60 to 80 cars. That converts to a lot of co-owner toys such as motorhomes, travel trailers, campers, cabin cruisers, ski boats, jet skis, sailboats, houseboats, bass boats, motorcycles, ATVs, cars, and trucks.

Specifications:

650 PASSENGER CRUISE SHIP FOR SALE

VESSEL IS FULLY FITTED WITH SPRINKLERS

SOLAS 2005/2010 FITTED

TWIN SCREW CRUISE

VESSEL DIMENSIONS LOA 137.10 X BREADTH 21.00 X 5.8 METERS DRAFT

BUILT 1981 / POLAND

REBUILT 1991

REBUILT – UPGRADED 1999

REBUILT – RENOVATED – REFURBISHED 2002

CLASS RS ICE CLASS L2

GRT 12637

PASSENGERS 650 IN 230 CABINS (BASIS 3 BERTH OCCUPANCY)

ALL CABINS WITH PRIVATE FACILITIES (INCLUDING SUITES AND SEMI SUITES)

9 DECKS

HELICOPTER PAD

MAIN ENGINES SULZER 4 X 4,350 BHP

SPEED ABOUT 17.5 / 15 KNOTS ON ABOUT 45/36 M / TONS + 9 TONS DIESEL OIL

BOWTHRUSTER 800 BHP

STABILIZERS

120 TONS PER DAY WATER MAKER

RECEPTION

LOUNGE

RESTAURANT (420 SEATS)

NINE BARS

CASINO

DUTY FREE SHOP

CHILDREN'S PLAY ROOM – TWO DISCOS

TV / MOVIE CORNER

DUTY FREE SHOPS

HAIRDRESSING SHOP

JACUZZI

ONE PASSENGER ELEVATOR

LAUNDRY SPA & HEALTH CLUB

TWO SAUNAS

CLINIC

TWO SWIMMING POOLS (ADULT & CHILDREN)

Cost per cabin based on asking price, $ 71,739. This ship will sell for less than asking price. It is already SOLAS 2010 compliant. It would cost very little to put into commercial service.

Conclusion

Becoming a co-owner of a cruise ship is not a far fetched idea. It is practical and feasible if you are able to find like minded people who would be willing to share the expenses.

Source by Arthur Wyss

Jesus Christ Our Savior – Was He a Scientist?

Many people across the globe continue to ask themselves about the nature of Jesus Christ, the son of God and what made Him popular across the world in the 33 years that He lived here on planet earth. Was He a political leader, a magician, a sociologist or a scientist? This article examines the nature of Jesus Christ in relation to science.

Up to today many are puzzled about the birth of Jesus Christ by the Virgin Mary who slept with no man. Although she had Joseph as her husband, the Bible says that she did not sleep with him but got pregnant by the power of the Holy Spirit, a situation which did not involve the normal biological phenomenon of fertilization. This type of birth, however, is also biological because biology talks about parthenogenesis, a type of reproduction that does not involve fertilization in certain organisms like aphids. Therefore the birth of Jesus was scientific and biological.

He changed water into wine- This was the first miracle that Jesus performed at the wedding of Cana of Galilee (John 2: 1-9). This is the chemistry of fermentation but this time from water and not carbohydrates. Was Jesus therefore a chemist? Why change water to wine and it was served to the people at the wedding? This should not be taken wholesale because the dangers of alcohol are well known to everyone. Wine was the drink of the time and He did this out of His concern for the good of the people.

His first sermon on the mount in Matt 5, Jesus refers to His followers as the light and salt of the world. Jesus here is ecologically explaining to the world the importance of light as the source of energy for all living things. Primary producers, the plants, obtain their energy from the sun and the former pass on this energy to other living organisms at higher trophic levels such as herbivores and then to the carnivores. Jesus therefore, urges His followers to be the source of life to the whole world and to provide direction to the many who live in darkness.

The chemistry of salt as a preservative, taste giving, wound healing and its importance in the body's coordinating system was well understood by Jesus Christ. Without the knowledge of Science Jesus would not have used this example in His teaching. He calls upon His followers to be the salt of the world-preserve, give taste, heal and coordinate the world's activities accordingly in order to bring harmony among the people.

What about His many miracles of healing and deliverance? Can we call Him a doctor? Since He was concerned with the health of individuals, their need for feeding to prevent them from ulcers and malnutrition as well as their emotional concerns, Jesus can be regarded as a doctor. His love, care and none-discriminative approach are all characteristic of a good medical doctor. So Jesus was a real doctor.

It is therefore; appropriate to call Jesus Christ a scientist. Although He did not attend any formal Science-teaching schools and colleges, all He did and the examples He used during His teachings were scientific. He was a scientist by nature and all prospective scientists should pick a leaf from Him.

Source by Tumwesigye Wycliffe

Signs of Infidelity – 21 Categories of Telltale Signs

With infidelity reaching epidemic proportions, every woman should learn how to recognize the telltale signs of infidelity. The future of your relationship could depend on your ability to spot the telltale signs of an affair in time. In view of the rapidly rising divorce rates, and current statistics showing that 50% to 70% of men cheat on their mates, if your husband is cheating, you can not afford to be the "last one to know."

Every woman's personal library should contain a relationship reference book with detailed information on how to recognize the warning signs of infidelity. "Is He Cheating On You? – 829 Telltale Signs" is a comprehensive guide which documents practically every known cheating sign. The 800+ signs of infidelity in Is He Cheating on You? are divided into 21 categories so you can easily locate the signs that apply to your mate. What's unique about the warning signs listed here is that once you know what to look for, all the signs can be easily found using only your eyes and ears, your personal knowledge of your husband, and the information provided in the book. No special skills or equipment are required.

Each of the 21 categories is explained below along with the number of telltale signs listed under that category. While some women make it a point to check each of the 21 categories, others will only check the particular categories that seem to apply to their marriage or their mate. To insure that no one overlooks an important telltale sign, about a dozen of the signs are listed in more than one category.

For example:

"He always calls a certain female to share the special events in his life."

This sign is listed under Telephone Tip-Offs and again under His Behavior Around Other Women.

"He starts showering you with gifts or buying you flowers for no special reason"

This sign is listed under How He Relates to You and also under Gifts.

"You find deposit slips in his possession for someone else's bank account."

This sign is listed under Financial Affairs as well as under Physical Evidence.

Despite the title, "Is He Cheating On You? – 829 Telltale Signs" actually contains 950 telltale signs. Additional signs were added before the final version was printed. Readers continue to send in signs they have personally discovered which did not appear in the book. These signs have been added to the e-book version of Is He Cheating on You? which is sold by Booklocker.com Details on the 21 major categories of telltale signs appear below. Additional information on For signs of infidelity visit Http://www.Is-He-Cheating-On-You.com Remember: you can not afford to be the last one 's to know. Find out before it's too late.

PHYSICAL APPEARANCE – 76 telltale signs

A man having an affair (or even thinking about having one) will want to make himself more attractive. He will begin to enhance his appearance in some way. Be alert for changes in his wardrobe, his grooming, his body, and his personal hygiene. These are usually the most visible signs of infidelity. If he embarks on a drastic self-induced makeover, it's probably not for you. More than likely he's trying to attract or impress someone else.

HOW HE RELATES TO YOU – 70 telltale signs

The way your husband relates to you can provide many telltale signs. His involvement with another woman will cause him to treat you differently – even on a subconscious level. This is one of those areas where a wife can pick up signs of infidelity that a private investigator might otherwise overlook.

CONVERSATIONAL CLUES – 70 telltale signs

What your husband chooses or refuses to talk about can alert you to his involvement in an extramarital affair. He may mention new people, places and things, while the people, places and things he normally talks about are no longer a part of his conversation. Even his tone of voice can be an important telltale sign.

WORK HABITS – 39 telltale signs

Work is commonly used as an excuse to account for large blocks of time away from home. Men often use their jobs as a cover for their extramarital affairs. Your husband's work habits will undoubtedly change as his affair unfolds. Be on the lookout work-related telltale signs.

DAY-TO-DAY BEHAVIOR – 92 telltale signs

We are all creatures of habit. We all have a routine that we usually follow each day. A man who is cheating will display changes of some kind in his normal patterns of behavior. Pay close attention to any deviations in your husband's daily routine. These deviations are telltale signs.

FINANCIAL AFFAIRS – 52 telltale signs

Affairs cost money. If your husband has a lover, he'll want to wine her, dine her, entertain her and buy her occasional gifts. No matter how carefully he tries to cover his tracks, sooner or later this will be reflected in the family finances. Stay alert for financial signs of infidelity.

TRAVEL – 27 telltale signs

Your husband may not always be traveling for legitimate reasons. Even if he is, he may decide to combine business with a little pleasure. Travel affords a cheating unfaithful husband a unique opportunity to cheat away from prying eyes.

PERSONALITY OR BEHAVIORAL CHANGES – 36 telltale signs

Be alert for changes in your husband's attitude, personality or behavior. Whether they are drastic or subtle, changes of this type are often an indication of infidelity.

ABSENCES – 39 telltale signs

Affairs generally require a considerable amount of time. Since there are only 24 hours in a day, your husband's absences will become increasingly more frequent as he tries to steal time from other activities so he can be with his lover.

TELEPHONE TIP-OFFS – 76 telltale signs

Illicit affairs depend on repeated contact; many of which take place by phone. These telltale signs of infidelity are relatively easy to find. Many men take the risk of calling their lovers from home or having their lovers call them at home. Many wives (like me) discover their husband's infidelity either directly or indirectly by the telephone.

CAR CLUES – 40 telltale signs

Your husband's (or the family) car can be a rich source of telltale signs. The glove compartment, car seats (underneath and between), the tire well, the underside of the visor, the ashtray, the side pockets or compartments, under the floor mats and other nooks and crannies can reveal a wealth of information.

SEX – 37 telltale signs

Be alert for any type of changes in the frequency or the quality of your sex life together. Most important of all: If you suspect your husband of having an affair, take steps to protect yourself. Do not put yourself at risk for HIV / AIDS, herpes or e other sexually transmitted diseases.

EATING HABITS – 31 telltale signs

This is an area that wives usually overlook when checking for telltale signs. But your husband's eating habits can be influenced or affected by his lover. Without even realizing it, he may develop a preference for the type of food she eats, the way she likes her food prepared or the kind of restaurants in which she likes to eat. These are the types of telltale signs it would never occur to him to conceal.

SMELLS AND TASTES – 21 telltale signs

Each person has his or her own unique smell or taste. You may be oblivious to it until it becomes replaced with something else. Pay close attention if your husband smells or tastes "different," or if something in your home or car just does not smell "right." It may warrant closer investigation.

INVASION OF YOUR HOME – 22 telltale signs

It's not uncommon for a man who's cheating to invite his lover to his home. When this happens, it's not unheard of for lovers to leave personal items behind – sometimes deliberately, for an unsuspecting wife to find. You will usually find evidence in your bedroom or bathroom if another woman has been in your home while you were away. But telltale signs of infidelity may turn up in other areas of your home, as well.

GIFTS – 19 telltale signs

Be especially vigilant around the times of the year when gifts are usually exchanged. During the holidays and various other times throughout the year, you may find gifts or cards hidden around your home or in the car. Receipts or credit card bills for gifts may turn up shortly before or after Christmas and Valentine's Day.

COMPUTER USE – 30 telltale signs

It's common these days for a cheating husband to use e-mail to communicate with his lover. Some of the telltale signs in this category may also be an indication of his involvement in an online or cyber affair. Do not take this lightly. These affairs can be as harmful to your marriage as the real thing. Though they may not involve sexual contact, the emotional attachment can be extremely strong, and can quickly progress from cyberspace to physical reality.

CELL PHONES AND PAGERS / BEEPERS – 28 telltale signs

Today's technological advances make it easier for a husband to cheat on his wife. But it's also easier for a husband to get caught while trying to make contact or stay in touch with his lover.

PHYSICAL EVIDENCE – 32 telltale signs

Many times there's physical evidence just waiting to be found. Check your husband's wallet, his pants or jacket pockets, his desk or dresser drawers, the wastepaper basket, his closet shelves, the floor in the back of his closet, the garage, his study, filing cabinets, his workshop, his toolbox or any place else you can think of. Keep your eyes open. You'll be surprised at the kinds of physical evidence of infidelity you can find.

HIS BEHAVIOR AROUND OTHER WOMEN – 71 telltale signs

Studies show that a man is most likely to have an affair with someone he already knows – someone he comes in contact with on a regular basis – a neighbor, a coworker, a family friend or business associate. If you're observant, you may be able to determine the identity of your husband's lover by the way he behaves in her presence, or by how she behaves around him.

ACCIDENTAL SLIPS-UPS OR DISCLOSURES – 57 telltale signs

Sometimes you get lucky and find out what your husband has been up to by accident, or through some strange quirk of fate. An accidental slip-up on his part or on the part of someone else can clue you in to what's been happening behind your back.

Excerpts taken from "Is He Cheating on You? – 829 Telltale Signs." © 2004 Ruth Houston All rights reserved.

Source by Ruth Houston

As Civilization Advances Culture Declines

Civilization and culture are two constellations that lie in the same continuum. Each influences and is in turn influenced by the other. Civilization is an advanced state of intellectual, cultural, and material development in human society, marked by progress in the arts and sciences, the extensive use of record-keeping, including writing, and the appearance of complex political and social institutions. This is basically a state of affair in a society at a particular time frame. The definition above suggests the advanced state of affair … in common parlance … but civilization may be traditional or not advanced.

People say Indus valley civilization or Egyptian civilizations which are primitive civilizations. On the other hand, culture means the ways of thinking, acting, behaving that people have internalized in them and which are transformed into reality through their actions in the society. For example, respecting the elders or treating guests as the God; as in "Atithi devo bhava" are examples of particular cultural traits. Here before proceeding any further one needs to understand the various constituents of the culture.

When one studies culture, two things can not be neglected; cultural traits and cultural complexes. Cultural traits are the individual acts that defy any scientific reason but are simply followed on the basis that they are rooted in tradition. The examples of cultural traits are folding hands in front of a deity or touching the feet of elders. The inter-related cultural traits form a cultural complex.

For example while performing a "pooja" one lights an "agarvati", chants some hymns or devotional songs, offers "Prasad" to the lord etc. All these activities constitute the cultural complex. The inter-play and interaction of the different cultural complexes form the substratum of culture. With so much of epistemological differences between culture and civilization one needs to see what separates the both. Culture refers to those intrinsic and intangible elements that engulf human whereas civilization includes all the physical objects that are the exemplification of some objective realities.

Civilization is the human creativity, intellect and volition translated into reality whereas culture is the morality and intellect that remain as the under current of human thought. Civilization progresses thorough the vehicle of knowledge and technology whereas culture thrives in human mind and proceeds through tradition. But when one says they lie in the same continuum means culture determines the civilization. For example, that society where the dominant culture is heroism and hero-worships like the Sioux Indians their substrata of civilization is based on heroism, physical prowess.

Their chief industry is making weapons for hunting and defending own clan members. And their structure of authority and leadership also hovers around this principle only. But at the same time civilization also influences culture in many ways. The technical developments and objective rationality in knowledge inquires the truth among the traditional customs. Reinterpretation of cultural complexes and superstitions from a scientific point of view makes room for reinterpretation of culture. So culture and civilization influence each other. The present write up requires an analysis if the advancement of civilization makes way for decline of culture.

As described earlier culture is morality and civilization is reality. Culture resides in ideas and civilization spurns out of ideas. So it is quite easy to see the pre-occurrence of culture vis-à-vis civilization. But such a concomitance is not that easy as once civilization is formed it tends to affect the ideas or the culture which is the substrata of its very own self. The advancement of civilization affects culture in many ways. And the very common notion is that the advancement of civilization declines culture. But to analyze the statement one needs to understand what does the "word" decline mean here.

Decline means as usual lessening of importance given on culture. But it also means that the earlier cultural axioms which have been adopted without question by all, comes under the hammer of reason. And all such preconditions about culture which are rooted in irrationality are increasingly given up. For example with the spread of awareness and knowledge among the mass the traditions like "sati" etc are given up. But this can not be called asa decline of culture because it is a constructive effort to eradicate a social evil from society.

So when one tries to establish a concomitance between civilization and decline of culture one needs to have a thin line approach, where one needs to separate the constructive and beneficial changes in culture and the decline of culture. One needs to see what is implied by advancement of culture.

The very phrase "advancement of culture" refers to a dynamic process; a change. Why on earth there is a change in civilization. There is a change from one state of affair to the other when 1. The preceding state of affair has some contradictions inherent in it or 2. When there is a better or new way of doing things which are superior to those in the preceding state of affair. Both of these above reasons refer to two different epistemological paradigms but what connects the both is the thread of rationality or objectivity which in common parlance called as scientific understanding.

Civilization, as stated earlier the material developments of human beings, proceeds from a state of less scientific to more scientific one. One can go to history to trace the brief advancement of civilization. The earliest form of civilization was the human horde in the pre-historic ages. This was a civilization where man was last rational and succumbed to the nature. But gradually rationality and scientific inquest impinged the earlier man also and he devised such rudimentary tools to defend himself against the adversities in a forest life and also hunt animals for subsistence. The first historical act of human being "production" was also his first step towards rationality. And for the rest of history man is trying to increase rationality of thought, behavior and action.

The next civilizations be it the civilization of Egypt or Mesopotamia or the Indus valley all developed because man made more scientific inventions and used his reason to overcome the nature. This civilization took man's intellect to a newer and higher level. His earlier horde culture was replaced by a family culture and the civilization influenced the culture. Of course the very birth of a civilization or in general an idea occurs in the human mind which is a purely cultural concept but when it becomes really existent it starts molding human mind and thereby culture.

Man's progress from Bronze-iron ages to feudal age or industrial age or the modern age of today is the progression of rationality of thought from a lower level to a higher level. One can not say that as civilization advances man becomes more rational. Rather when man becomes more rational civilization advances. And when civilization advances rationality creeps into society and culture comes under the hammer of scientific inquiry. So the irrational elements of culture are progressively shed off and hence the hold of culture on human mind declines.

Those cultural ideals which were prevalent in the yester years are rendered rather irrelevant by the progression of science and technology. In earlier days the farmers used to indulge in festivities to impress the Goddess of fertility to have good harvest. But now-a-days the farmer rather invests more money on tractors, insecticides and hybrid seeds than in cultural festivities to have a better yield. An epidemic like cholera or chicken pox is not perceived as a wrath of the presiding deity but treated by medically approved norms and procedures. So the advancement of civilization has created awareness among the mass and people are beginning to stride the kingdom of reasons.

The advancement of civilization is coincident with the advancement in science and technology. New technology and new methods of production requires a definitive change in the existing division of labor in society. And thus associated changes do occur in the cultural aspect of the economic society. With the prevalence of factory mode of production the labor forces have become mobile instead of the fixed labour in case of feudal economy. Mobile labor force gives rise to urban culture. So the earlier human culture which was predominantly rural has been diversified into a urban culture.

Certain norms and values ​​of the rural society are not applicable in the urban society. So a certain amount of changes do occur in the culture. Some cultural traits are negated and some new cultural traits specific to the urban area people do develop. The earlier joint family structure breaks to give rise to the new neo-local nucleus family structure. Religious rituals in the daily life go to a back stage. And new subcultures like shopping mall culture, multiplexes and other agencies of entertainment become important in case of city life. So as culture advances there occurs a change in the culture.

In some cases the old cultural elements are thrown to back burner, new cultural traits arise or in some cases the old cultural elements are reinterpreted in a radically different way. But one has to agree that the advancement of civilization effects changes to the culture. The change in culture with associated advancement of civilization is not always in a constructive way as depicted above. Advancement of civilization especially the rise of urbanism as a way of life has effected some irreparable damages to our olden culture.

The most pronounced change in the culture is the break down of family. In the earlier societies the family was the most important unit of society. As it was also an economic unit there was not much division of labor in society and all the family members are involved in the same economic pursuit. There were greater dependence with each other along with greater volume and density of interaction amongst them. Family acted as a conditioning device in which people can bank on each other at times of stress. But the new urbanization has made family an atomistic entity as imagined by Zimmerman.

As the volume ad density of social interaction decreases due to the break down of the extended family the expectation of people from each other increases manifold in a nucleus family. So family instead of a soothing device becomes a pressure cooker as remarked by David Cooper in his master piece the death of family. Other psychologists like Robert Laing talk that the family itself has become the biggest enemy of man by putting him into a catch 22 situation of immense pressure and enormous expectations. So individual in the family itself is at the receiving end.

This results in break down families, divorces and other familial discord including domestic violence. So urbanization has clearly broken down the earlier existing harmonic family culture. The effect of the advancement of civilization is also felt in the sphere of the morality in society. The earlier society has prescribed certain moral codes of conduct. But with the advancement of civilization and progress of scientific thoughts the moral codes are under attack. Some of the moral codes are, no doubt, established in irrationality; but they help to represent the collective conscience and preserve the social harmony. But scientific thoughts do not think in that direction.

Moral codes are discarded like anything in the new society. The simpler norms like honesty, punctuality, integrity, brotherhood, camaraderie etc are forgotten and in turn importance is given on individuation. Too much individuation results in less degree of integration with the society. This results in individual conscience influencing the collective consciousness more and more. This results in deviant behavior, corruption, dishonesty and other such social evils. Advancement of civilization throws up new values ​​and techniques which also give way for social mobility. New level of stratification are created, older levels are destroyed and modified.

This reduces man to a marginalized one. A marginal man does not know about norms to follow and what norms to abhor. He is in a state of flux which is rightly said as the state of anomie. Culture is an integrating force. But certain development in the level of sub-stratum like at the level of civilization weakens the impact of culture. This makes the socialization process unhealthy and weak. This causes a lot of strain in individual. In a society the individual has a very limited existence.

Compared to the enormity of the society the individual is minuscule and powerless. His existence depends on the collective representation. But the new norms of the modern civilization weaken the collective representation and man becomes less integrated with the society and feels great stress. Besides the modern values ​​bring out some such basic changes in the existing culture that the culture that the morality of society is endangered. Adoption of western values ​​and life styles, though they are not at all harmful, but highly unsuitable for the Indian society.

They lack the collective representation of Indian mass. So the western yo-man becomes marginalized in the great Indian tradition. Certain values ​​like freedom in sexual endeavors etc are not accepted in India even today. The so called moral police add fuel to the situation and make the situation more difficult. The adoption of western values ​​also increase the conspicuous consumption in society and that creates a great amount of social divide and polarization among the people.

Besides in the age of globalization when a society integrates itself with the global society especially in the sphere of economics there is always threat that the existing indigenous economic base may collapse. Civilization and culture are related with each other intricately. A change in the former creates a great stir in the later. Civilization advances through the advancement of ideas. These advanced ideas are bred in the mind of a few and the rest of the society do not share such advanced ideas. They stick to the traditional ideas which form their culture of the society.

When civilization advances there occurs a conflict between the reality and the idea possessed by the majority in the society. But as the reality always scores over the ideas, the advancement of civilization brings about change in culture. The change in culture may be a positive one or a destructive one. So one can not emphatically say that advancement of civilization does not always bring about decline in culture though change in culture is inevitable.

However the inculcation of rational thinking and reasoning among the mass weakens the blind acceptance of culture. So the importance of culture in the society declines. S one can say, the importance of culture may be reduced in a modern civilization but the very culture, its ethos can never decline but they may change to adopt new norms and values.

Adoption of new norms or values ​​may cause a stage of confusion and anomaly in the society but one need to understand that after this anti-thesis stage (anomic stage) there comes a stage of synthesis where new culture emerges, a culture more rational one. The more the culture becomes rational the less importance it exerts on individuals in the society. So the statement again may e repeated that the importance of culture may decline in the process of advancement of civilization but culture itself can never be negated in the society.

Source by Mitrabhanu Mahapatra

Part-Time Online Jobs For Teachers – Data Entry Positions

If you are seeking legitimate part-time online jobs for teachers, data entry work could be a perfect opportunity. These jobs are becoming increasingly popular since they require no previous experience and it's easy to get started. In this article, I will explain the basics of data entry work and show you how to go about finding a good paying part-time job.

Data entry is the process of entering information into a database, spreadsheet, or computer. Many legitimate companies hire people to perform this work for them. There are many different types of jobs including word processing, business coding, transcription, data research, legal transcription, and many more.

Most of these jobs require no prior experience. The only requirements are a computer and an internet connection. You should also have above average typing skills as you will likely be entering data using your keyboard, although scanning and voice recognition may also be used.

Unfortunately, finding data entry jobs for teachers can sometimes be tricky as there are many sites that can not be trusted. Many are scams and only provide you with an outdated list of companies. You want to make sure you do your research and choose a company that will set you up directly with a job. They should also provide full training, support, and a money back guarantee.

Finding a good part-time online job does not have to be difficult. If you do your research and choose a solid company or service to work with, you will find that data-entry positions can make for perfect part-time jobs for teachers.

Source by Sidney Landers

Has Modern Science and Medicine Done More Harm Than Good?

Modern science and medicine has brought many benefits to mankind. An ordinary man and woman can expect to live longer than it was ever possible. In our country itself, the life expectancy is well over sixty years, which is much higher than people in less developed areas.

Smallpox is non-existent according to the World Health Organization. This contrasts sharply with the situation just about forty years ago when smallpox was a deadly killer of hundreds and thousands of people every year.

Other diseases like tuberculosis, polio, leprosy and other once dreaded diseases are largely curable now. Medical care has improved by leaps and bounds. Many potent new drugs have been developed to combat the many diseases that man is suffer from. Even some cancers are curable now.

There are some diseases that are still very hard to treat, but at least there are more options available to the sufferers. Heart and other organ transplants are commonplace nowadays. So the chances of surviving a disease have increased. Except for AIDS, cancer and plain old age, men and women are much better off than their ancestors in terms of medical treatment.

However that is only one side of the story. In prolonging the lives of men and women, there are many unexpected problems surface.

With the reduction of the overall death rate, the population of the world will rise quickly. This will create problems in providing adequate housing and food for the rapidly ageing population. The demands on the Earth will increase many folds. Our resources will be diminished and the future generation will be hard-pressed to cope with the galloping world population.

People will live longer. They require more of everything. Can society cope? I am not saying we should simply let the aged and sick die so that we will have enough resources for the healthy. There are a lot of moral and ethical considerations in this sort of thing. Even now anyone who even condone euthanasia or mercy-killing will probably find a horde of moralists breathing down his neck.

So it comes down to this. Modern science and medicine has enabled more men and women to live longer. This has the effect of increasing the world population and especially the number of nonproductive older members of the human race. The apparent benefits that we have also bring along their unwanted problems. Modern science and medicine has brought enormous good for mankind. It has brought or is bringing a lot of harm too. Which is more, good or harm? There is really no clear answer now. Perhaps the future will reveal it.

Source by Ashley Wong